Chlamydia... Please help..

Hey ladies..
 To anyone that follows me (or who doesn't I'll share a small piece) I was with someone for almost 3 years and we broke up, I was/am heartbroken about it but I didn't want to be in the corner crying or bitter about it. I started seeing someone (for about a month now).
 Last week his balls started hurting a lot and for a bit he thought it was because we had rough sex multiple times in a row. When it continued during that week we went to the doctor, they told him he had some sort of infection (obviously) gave him some medicine and would contact him if it was serious like Chlamydia.. Phone call today confirms he has it. 
They said finish the medicine and he should be good?? He had insurance. 
I don't so I need to find out how much getting checked would cost OR apply for insurance and then get checked???
 Part of me is like this is what you get for trying to be in a new relationship and the other part of me is like stay calm everyone has issues.. 
No there were no condoms, they've always hurt me super bad in the past. But I considered getting one going into a new relationship is what is more upsetting. I was reading it could affect fertility?! NO JUDGING. Someone give me insight on this and before I go to the doc and do I need to ask for a regular check up or do I specifically need to ask them to check for it??? 
How long can a man (or woman) have Chlamydia before knowing?